Budget 2011 – The Budget jury gives its verdict

October 27, 2010

Tuesday, 26th October 2010 – 11:47CET

The Budget jury gives its verdict – Environmentalist

 

Alfred E.  Baldacchino, 64 Now a pensioner, Mr Baldacchino used to be an assistant director at the planning authority’s Environmental Protection Directorate and has a master’s degree in environmental management and planning. He lives in an Attard maisonette with his wife with whom he has two children, now married. He drives a five-year-old OpelCorsa – “the cheapest possible on the market”, and his income falls in the €7,501 – €14,000 bracket.

Mr Baldacchino said although the environment was addressed, there were some disappointing inclusions or omissions and some were “worrying”.  One such point was the announcement of the roads linking Mellieħa to the Red Tower and the Red Tower to Ċirkewwa. Apart from passing from “virgin natural environment, one of them has to pass through two Natura 2000 sites”.  He was also disappointed to see that the environmental deficit was not so strongly addressed. “No plans for the collection, management of run off and protection of underground water;  no management plans for Natura 2000 sites, either terrestrial or marine, no plans for job opportunities in the environment fields, no plans and measures for the negative impacts of climate change.”

He also saw as disappointing the fact that only slight importance was given to the economic opportunities in the environmental fields and only small limited incentives were given to photovoltaic panels and solar heaters.

“The Budget also ignores present economic burdens borne by society because of unsustainable mismanagement, such as in the field of water,  particulate matter, disappearance of biodiversity and toxic waste, be it liquid or solid,” Mr Baldacchinosaid.

Mr Baldacchino said environmental investment was still minimal compared to other fields such as health, industry, education, infrastructure, development, commercial activity and economic gain. He added this was a “clear indication” the environment was still regarded as being a mere appendix, “notwithstanding the fact that its mismanagement has such a great negative economic and social impact”.

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X’nifhmu bil-kelma ambjent

October 20, 2010

X’nifhmu bil-kelma ambjent

Alfred E. Baldacchino

Illum il-kelma ambjent hija fuq fomm kulħadd. Dan huwa pass il-quddiem. Iżda mhux kulħadd jifhem l-istess ħaġa bil-kelma ambjent. Hemm min jaħseb li jekk inżżommu nadif huwa biżżejjed. Hemm imbgħad dawk li jaħsbu li jekk tħawwel siġra jew tnejn ukoll huwa biżżejjed. Ngħiduha kif inhi, mhux għax dawn ma jgħinux, imma l-kelma ambjent hija aktar wiesgħa minn hekk. Ejja nieħdu eżempju biex naraw x’għandna nifhmu bil-kelma ambjent.

 

In-nisġa tan-Natura li tiġbor fiha wkoll il-bniedem

 

Kulħadd jaf xhini siġra. Siġra hija ħolqien ħajja, li tikber, tiekol, tixjieħ, tipproduċi, u anki tmut. Ħarsa lejn siġra turina li din hija ankrata fl-art, fejn l-għeruq tagħha jinżlu fil-fond kemm biex jgħinu lis-siġra tkun soda fl-art, kif ukoll biex jgħinuha ttella’ l-ilma biex tagħmel l-ikel. Fl-istess ħin, din is-siġra qed iżżomm il-ħamrija f’postha u ma tħallihiex tinġarr bir-riħ u bix-xita. Barra minn hekk il-weraq li twaqqa’ is-sigra fl-art jgħinu biex il-ħamrija ssir aktar sinjura. U s-siġra qed toffri wkoll ambjent għan-numru ta’ ħlejjaq oħra.

M’għandniex xi ngħidu li s-siġra trid ukoll id-dawl tax-xemx biex tkun tista’ tikber. Permezz tad-dawl tax-xemx u l-ilma li ttella mill-għeruq, il-weraq ħodor tas-sigra jagħmlu l-ikel tagħha li jgħinha tikber, tipproduċi, u tkompli tgħix. Kif jafu dawk li fi żmien il-Milied jiżirgħu l-ġurbiena u jpoġġuha fid-dlam, din titla’ bajdanija, mingħajr kulur ħadrani, u tkun anki dgħajjfa għaliex ma jkolliex id-dawl biex tkun tista’ tagħmel l-ikel. Barra minn hekk it-temperatura minn dan id-dawl tax-xemx ma tridx tkun la sħuna ħafna u lanqas kiesħa ħafna li s-sigra ma tkunx adattata għaliha. Hekk jekk nieħdu siġra mill-Mediterran u nħawluha fl-Iżlanda, din ma tgħix għaliex it-temperatura hija kiesha wisq għaliha. Hekk ukoll jekk inġibu siġra mill-Iżlanda hawn Malta, din tbgħati għaliex il-klima hija sħuna wisq għaliha. Hekk kull bdil fit-temperatura jkollu impatt fuq il-ħlejjaq li ma jkunux imdorrijin b’dik it-temperatura, kemm jekk tkun għolja, kif ukoll jekk tkun baxxa aktar milli jkunu mdorrijin biha.

Is-siġra wkoll trid l-arja biex tieħu n-nifs. Jekk ngħalqu siġra f’post mingħajr arja, għalkemm ikollha d-dawl u l-ilma, din ma tgħix u bil-mod il-mod tmut. Filwaqt li s-siġra tieħu d-diossidu tal-karbonju (carbon dioxide) mill-arja, hija tgħati wkoll lura l-ossiġenu (oxygen). U hekk naraw li s-siġra tgħin biex iżżomm bilanċ tal-gassijiet fl-atmosphera, għaliex jekk dan il-bilanċ ma jiżammx, allura jista’ jkun kemm ta’ ħsara għas-siġra nnifisha kif ukoll għall-ħlejjaq l-oħra li jgħixu fuq din l-art. U dan il-bilanċ huwa meħtieġ li jinżamm minkejja t-tibdiliet kontinwi li hemm.

Mela naraw li s-siġra li hija ħajja għandha bżonn ukoll partijiet fiżiċi, bħall-ilma, id-dawl, l-arja, u l-art. Mingħajr dawn din ma tistax tgħix, u dawn il-partijiet fiżiċi ma jkunux sħaħ mingħajr il-ħajja tas-siġra minħabba n-nisġa li għandhom magħha. Imma jekk l-ilma jkun imniġġeż jew ikkontaminat bil-kimika, jekk l-arja tkun imniġġża b’kimiċi li wħud minnhom jistgħu ukoll jifformaw xi aċtu meta jitħallatu ma’ l-ilma, jekk it-temperatura tkun aktar sħuna jew kiesha minn dak li siġra tkun adattata għaliha, dawn kollu jkollhom impatt negattiv fuq is-sigra li jistgħu wkoll iwasslu biex joqtlu lis-siġra.

 

 

Iż-Żnuber - siġa tal-Mediterran

 

Issa npoġġu l-bniedem minflokk is-siġra u naraw li dan bħas-siġra għandu bżonn ukoll l-art, l-ilma mhux imniġġeż, l-arja safja, kif ukoll id-dawl tax-xemx biex ikun jista’ jgħix, jikber, jiekol u jirriproduċi. U bħal ma dawn jistgħu jeqirdu siġra, hekk ukoll jistgħu jeqirdu mhux biss is-siġar l-oħra kollha, imma anki l-annimali inkluż il-bniedem.

Għalhekk meta wieħed jitkellem fuq l-ambjent irid iħares kemm lejn il-parti fiżika li tkun tajba għall-ħajja, kif ukoll għall-ħlejjaq kollha li jiddependu minn din il-parti fiżika. Din hija n-nisġa naturali li minna jiddependi wkoll il-bniedem. U ma nistgħux ngħatu każ lill-parti waħda biss u ninjoraw lill-oħra. Din hija t-tifsira wiesgħa tal-kelma ambjent li wieħed għandu jżopmm f’moħħu meta jitkellem fuq l-ambjent.

aebaldacchino@gmail.com


Mother Earth, Brother Sun, Sister Moon – 2

August 16, 2010

28th October 2007

Mother Earth, Brother Sun, Sister Moon – 2
Alfred E. Baldacchino

As we have seen from the first part of my feature, the world’s leading religions – no matter how diverse – are of one voice regarding man’s obligation to care for and protect the environment.

The wealth of spiritual direction by the leading world religions was
manifested in Assisi, Italy, on September 29, 1986, on the occasion
of the World Wide Fund for Nature’s 25th anniversary, where they
issued a declaration on man and nature.

For the very first time in history, five major ethical systems of the
world categorically stated that their beliefs led them to the need to
conserve this delicate and fragile ecosystem of which man is just a
part and so dependent upon.

The Venerable Lungrig Namgyal Rinpoche, Abbot of Gyuto Tantric
University, presented the Buddhist declaration on nature, dwelling
on the fact that the disregard for natural heritage has brought about
risks to world peace and to the survival of endangered species. The
destruction of the environment, and the life depending upon it, was
the result of ignorance, greed and disregard for the richness of all
living things. “We are the generation with the awareness of a great
danger. We are the ones with the responsibility and the ability to
concrete action, before it is too late.”

Fr Lanfranco Serrini, Minister General of the Franciscan Conventual Order, declared that man’s dominion cannot be understood as a licence to abuse, spoil, squander or destroy what God has made to manifest His glory. That dominion cannot be anything other than a stewardship in symbiosis with all creatures.

On one hand, man’s position verges on a viceregal partnership with God; on the other, his self-mastery in symbiosis with creation must manifest the Lord’s exclusive and absolute dominion over everything, over man and over his stewardship. At the risk of destroying himself, man may not harm or destroy God’s bountiful treasures.

Karan Singh, president of the Hindu Virat Samaj, read the Hindu Declaration on Nature referring to the Hindu scriptures which pronounce a reverence for life, and an awareness that the four elements – earth, air, water and fire – as well as various orders of life, including plants and trees, forests and animals, are all bound to each other within the great rhythms of nature. An ancient Hindu dictum is: “The earth is our mother, and we are all
her children.”

Abdullah Omar Nasseef, secretary-general of the Muslim World League, said that for Muslims, mankind’s role on earth was that of a khalifa, viceroy or trustee of God. We are God’s stewards and agents on earth. We are
not masters of this earth; it does not belong to us to do what we wish. It belongs to God and He has entrusted us with its safekeeping. Our function is only to oversee the trust. He added that the world is green and beautiful and God has appointed man as His steward over it. Environmental consciousness is born when such values are adopted and become an intrinsic part of our mental and physical make-up.

Rabbi Arthur Hertzberg, vice-president of the World Jewish Congress, explained that the encounter of God and Mother Earth by Jenness Cortez
Perlmutter man in nature is conceived in Judaism as a seamless web with man as the leader and custodian of the natural work. Man has a responsibility to life, to defend it everywhere, not only against man’s own sins but also against those of others. “We are all passengers together in this same fragile and glorious world. Let us safeguard our row boat – and let us row together.”

Since these statements were made in 1986, much water has passed under the bridge. But the strong flow of water today facing humanity is all murky, carrying the hidden costs of man’s greed. The silver lining is that the destruction of the eco system is also strongly contributing to a stronger public awareness, not least in the spiritual field.

Last month, Pope Benedict XVI led the Church’s first ‘eco friendly’ youth rally on the occasion of his prayer vigil with young people in Loreto, Italy. Addressing nearly half a million youngsters, the Pope, referring to world
leaders, emphasised that “before it is too late, it is necessary to make courageous decisions that reflect knowing how to recreate a strong alliance between man and the earth” and stressed the “pressing need for science and religion to work together to safeguard the gifts of nature and to promote responsible stewardship.”

On October 1, the Maltese Church’s Environment Commission published an opinion paper stating that “the Church needs to be a clear and courageous sign of the times. With its sincere interest in the holistic development of humans – because they are created in God’s image – the Church is in the best position to find the right balance between the three dimensions of sustainable development: the environment, society and economy while lamenting that “… for some individuals in the various strata of the Church in Malta, environmental responsibility features quite low in their personal value scale”.

The light at the end of the long dark tunnel is shining brightly, helped by the world’s leaders, obeying the command of our Creator. The sacred writings all spell out the anguish that can befall humanity, both from a spiritual and a physical point of view, if the environment is destroyed. Keeping in mind, with courage and determination, that we are guardians of God’s creation, we cannot fail.

And once obeying the command of the Creator, can anything block our enthusiasm when we are united with Christ? Before it is too late, let’s do it, in the name of the Father.

aebaldacchino@gmail.com


The introduction of alien species into the natural environment – a European concern

June 21, 2010

22 June 2008

Alfred E. baldacchino 

Alien species are not extraterrestrial species, as one could be led to believe by the word “alien”. From a biological perspective, alien species are living species of flora and fauna which, in an unnatural way, are introduced into a natural habitat where they have never occurred before, and as such are not indigenous to that area. Some of these species may be quite harmless. But others can be very dangerous from an ecological and an economical aspect. The introduction of alien species can be either accidental or intentional, but in both cases the species introduced can became invasive, competing with the local species for space and food and thus threatening the survival of indigenous species, sometimes even by predation. Invasive alien species (IAS) can be a serious threat to biodiversity and contribute to its loss. Aided by other environmental threats, IAS weaken the resilience of natural systems and reduce their ability to adapt to new conditions generated by climate change. An example of a local intentionally introduced floral species is the eucalyptus tree. The latest introduced faunal species recorded towards the end of 2007, and officially declared invasive, is the red palm weevil. This is but a brief and simple definition of an alien species. The ever-increasing international demand for exotic species, whether animal or plant, for commercial trade, aided by modern means of transportation, make it easier for species to establish themselves in countries where they have never previously been present. The increasing illegal trafficking in exotic wild species on a global scale (which is only second to illegal drug trafficking) further enhances the possibilities of species invading other countries. Having seen the negative impact of IAS, the international community introduced legislation to control them. Below is a very brief general look at some of this legislation and its provisions and obligations, which is aimed at controlling introduced aliens species, and to which the signatories have committed themselves.

Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) The Convention on Biological Diversity, which was signed at Rio de Janeiro on 5 June 1992, is the most recent international convention and embraces the most modern scientific principles in the conservation of biological diversity. It lays down measures regarding the conservation of species and the contracting parties will, as far as possible and as appropriate, achieve this by establishing or maintaining the means to regulate, manage or control the risks associated with the use and release of living modified organisms resulting from biotechnology that are likely to have an adverse environmental impact that could affect the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity, taking also into account the risk to human health. Furthermore, the signatories are also obliged to prevent the introduction of, see to the control of or the eradication of those alien species that threaten ecosystems, habitats or species. Malta became a signatory to the Convention on Biological Diversity on 29 December 2000.

Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats (Bern)  was signed in Bern on 19 October 1979 under the auspices of the Council of Europe. The signatories to this convention are obliged to undertake strict control of the introduction of non-native species. Malta became a signatory to this convention on 26 November 1993.

Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (Bonn) The United Nations Environment Programme is the Secretariat of the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals. The signatories to this convention, which came into force in 1985, agree to endeavour – to the extent that is feasible and appropriate – to prevent, reduce or control factors that are endangering or are likely to further endanger the species listed in an annex of the convention. Signatories are also obliged to strictly control the introduction of, or control or elimination of, already introduced exotic species. Malta became a signatory to this convention on 13 February 2001.

United Nations Convention on the Laws of the Sea (UNCLOS) UNCLOS also addresses the protection and preservation of the marine environment. The signatories to this convention, which came into force in 1994, are to take all measures necessary to prevent, reduce and control pollution of the marine environment resulting from the use of technologies under their jurisdiction or control, or the intentional or accidental introduction of species, alien or new, to a particular part of the marine environment, which may cause significant and harmful changes thereto. The cleaning of ships’ hulls and the ballast water carried by ships are the main contributors to such alien introduced species. Malta became a signatory to this convention on 25 May 1993.

EU Council Directive 92/43/EEC of 21 May 1992 on the Conservation of Natural Habitats and of Wild Fauna and Flora    This European Union legislation also addresses the issue of the introduction of alien species with regard to the conservation of European natural habitats and wild species of flora and fauna. In implementing the provisions of this Directive, also referred to as the Habitats Directive, member states are to ensure that the deliberate introduction into the wild of any species that is not native to their territory is regulated so as not to prejudice natural habitats within their natural range or the wild native fauna and flora and, if they consider it necessary, prohibit such introduction into their country. This Directive became applicable to Malta when it joined the European Union on 1 May 2004. The European Union also has other decisions and regulations that support and encourage member states to honour the international conventions that incorporate such principles. These include, amongst others, the above-mentioned conventions. It has to be admitted that such concepts are relatively new to all the social entities in the Maltese Islands, where a lot still has to be done so that they can be understood, accepted and implemented. Nevertheless, these are Malta’s legal obligations under the international treaties to which Malta is a contracting party. aebaldacchino@gmail.com


Environment: a new beginning?

March 7, 2010

 

  Thursday, 4th March 2010

 Environment: A new beginning?

Alfred E. Baldacchino

 

The Parliamentary Secretary for Tourism, the Environment and Culture,  Mario de Marco made his first public statement on the environment following the latest adjustments to his portfolio (The Times, February 19). This, I am glad to say, provides a lot of food for thought and hope for the ever-increasing number of citizens who are convinced that the environment is the platform on which all decisions have to be based. “And so it should be,” said Dr de Marco, adding that decisions and actions have to take into consideration the economic, social and ecological aspect. “It places sustainable development even more at the centre of the government and as the building block on which all policies, not just environment policies, are built.” Very well said. Expectations that the dormant National Commission for Sustainable Development will be given the breath of life must now be very high.

Dr de Marco may still be trying to find his feet under the added weight of his responsibilities but his first official comment on the environment augurs well for the environment and he should not only be congratulated but also encouraged and given all possible help. His understanding of the interdependence of the biotic (life on earth) and the abiotic (the physical environment such as water, air, light and land) is indeed a very good start. It is an understanding that is so conspicuous by its absence in so many decision-making public bodies.

Admittedly, the “task at hand is by no means an easy one”. If I may borrow a slogan from the party in government, that “together everything is possible”, then, if all the social entities are involved and are made to feel they belong and are part of such a vision, the task may not be as difficult as one thinks. These social entities include, among others, the political, religious, commercial, educational, judicial, medical, trade unionist, scientific and non-governmental bodies.

Dr de Marco also correctly made emphasis on the EU environment legislation, with its obligations with regard to the biotic and abiotic environment, and the need for this to be the platform for implementing such a vision if “we want to bring our environment up to European standards”. We are more than capable as a nation of meeting the environmental challenges… when there is the will.

Dr de Marco wrote that the Environment Protection Directorate will be strengthened, a very urgent and long overdue measure following the depletion and mutilation of the Environment Protection Department after its “merger” with the Planning Authority. I wrote and even publicly stated during the public discussion meeting with the Prime Minister on December 14, 2009, that it is a big mistake to leave the Environment Protection Directorate “merged” with the planning authority. From past experience and public knowledge, since this “merger” in 2002, not only has the EPD been emarginated, bruised, maimed, exploited and raped but also the environment in general. This is why the separation of the EPD and the Planning Directorate is a sine qua non. It has been stifled (not because of Hexagon House conditions) for far too long now.

This does not mean that the EPD should necessarily be an authority on its own but it can be part of or a directorate within another authority; for example, the Malta Resource Authority, naturally within the portfolio of the minister responsible for the environment.

The vision, the understanding, the legal framework and the need of action plans to bring the environment up to EU standards are all outlined in Dr De Marco’s contribution; a very big step forward, in such a short time. Dr de Marco concludes that “we now have a clear idea of where our problems lie”.

Having been deeply involved for so long in the protection of the environment on a national and international level, the greatest problem in achieving such a vision is the lack of a political will. Without such a will, it will be completely impossible to achieve Dr de Marco’s aim of bringing the environment up to EU standards.

Dr de Marco deserves all the possible help and all the necessary resources to achieve such an official vision. There is no doubt that a lot of pieces have got to be picked up from the floor and put together again and others have to be resurfaced, having been thrown overboard. I would like to wish him all the best of luck and success in achieving this, not only for the benefit of the present generation but also for future generations from whom we have temporarily borrowed such an intricate web of life.

Shall we see a new beginning for the environment? If there is a will, there is a way. Time will tell.

 aebaldacchino@gmail.com


GOZO – an ecological island

February 21, 2010

Sunday, October 26, 2008

 GOZO – an ecological island – Alfred E. Baldacchino

 The concept

The concept of establishing Gozo as an ecological island is indeed a great concept: a concept which can not only transform Gozo in all its splendours, but also one which at the same time can conserve all the characteristics of the island, be they ecological, historical, cultural, economical, educational, or aesthetic. However, this vision has to follow a strategic holistic plan, rather than piecemeal fragmented efforts. Every social entity, be it governmental or nongovernmental and every interested and willing individual of whatever colour or creed, should feel the responsibility and the duty to contribute to such a vision. From what I have read and from what I have heard, there is still a need for more public awareness on the basic principles of this concept. These need to be better defined and refined. Some do have feelings of fear and uncertainty, while others are not fully convinced of what this is all about, and if there is a need for it at all, or whether all this is just political mileage. This is mainly due to the fact that the meaning of the words ecology and sustainability need to be more clearly explained to one and all so that stakeholders’ ideas and input towards the realisation of this concept can be one of conviction. Admittedly, this concept is still in its embryonic stage, and strategic and holistic plans still need to be drawn up to encompass the thoughts, suggestions and ideas of all stakeholders.

 Ecology

Ecology is the scientific study of the distribution and abundance of living species (life) and the interactions between such organisms and their natural environment. In common parlance the word ‘ecology’ is a synonym for the natural environment. The environment of an organism includes physical properties, which can be described as the sum of local factors such as sunlight, climate, water and geology. So the ecosystem is a dynamic complex of plant, animal and microorganism communities and their non-living environment interacting as a  functional unit. An ecological concept has its roots in ecology as the ability of an ecosystem to maintain the ecological processes, functions, biodiversity and productivity, into the future, conscious of the intrinsic value of biological diversity and of the ecological, genetic, social, economic, scientific, education, cultural, recreational and aesthetic values of the biological diversity and its components.

 Sustainability

Sustainable use means the use of components of biological diversity in a way and at a rate that does not lead to the long-term decline of biological diversity, thereby maintaining its potential to meet the needs and aspirations of present and future generations. Sustainability means that nature’s resources are to be used at a rate at which they can be replenished naturally. According to the above definitions, some topics that quickly come to mind and on which action can be taken are climate change and clean energy, sustainable transport, sustainable consumption and production, conservation and management of natural resources – both terrestrial and marine, public health, social inclusion, demography and poverty, education and training, research and development, communication, economical activity to bring about change towards the implementation of this concept. And this is not an exhaustive list either. Education, through which knowledge can be shared, makes all the difference. And the use of market forces to boost sustainable development is a keystone of such strategy. To be fruitful, such a vision has to be run on the principles of openness, participation, accountability, effectiveness and coherence, followed by constant monitoring. The diagram shown above, readily found on any related Internet site, shows the three pillars of sustainability: the social environment, the economic environment, and environment protection. Not only are the three pillars interdependent, but also it is their joint mutual efforts that contribute to sustainability. This can perhaps dispel the fears of some who do not feel comfortable with the ecological sustainable tag as regards future visions, not least the concept of Gozo as an ecological island.

 First steps

The first official steps taken by the government offers a direction for such a concept. In the brochure “Share your dreams” published by the Ministry for Gozo, Minister for Gozo Giovanna Debono underlines the important fact that this is a “once-in-a-lifetime opportunity” where “everybody is called to the front line to project our Gozo of tomorrow”, “to shape its future together”. The brochure also gives an idea of what eco-Gozo means. Valid points which “… will make change happen, in both small, everyday practices and significant issues or sectors.” On similar lines, Dr Chris Said, a Gozitan himself and currently parliamentary secretary in the Office of the Prime Minister, in his article on sustainability (TMI, 13 October) emphasises that sustainability demands a change in mentality and lifestyles choice, as well as in the way we think, plan, work and earn our living and live; this will come to fruition through the participation of all interested parties, particularly the general public. In a separate article “A vision for Gozo” (TMI, 29 September), Dr Said, while touching on some topics that should be addressed with regard to the eco-Gozo concept, rightly emphasises “that this is not a concept exclusively owned by the government”, but that “every citizen, should embrace the eco-Gozo concept and make it his own”.

 Sharing a dream

The concept for Gozo as an eco island is great. The official directions presented are encouraging. The stage is set. Admittedly it is no easy task to collate all the separate agendas and fine tune and amalgamate them into one, especially if there is that odd one or two which disregard the two other pillars of sustainability as explained above. A way forward is the convening of a number of ad hoc thematic groups, possibly chaired by a government official, with the main aim being that they draw up a report incorporating their views and suggestions on the concept of an eco-island based on ecology and sustainability as guidelines. Outlines of such reports can then be presented by the groups’ rapporteurs at a public national seminar for further discussions and evaluation. Proceedings from such a national seminar can then be published as the first draft of the strategy to implement and achieve such a concept for Gozo as an eco-island. As Dr Said concluded his first article, “this may sound utopian”. However where there is a will there is a way: nothing ventured, nothing gained. The artist Vincent van Gogh once said: “I dream my painting, and then I paint my dream.”

 aebaldacchino@gmail.com


IS-SIĠAR MALTIN

February 21, 2010

 

21 ta’ Frar, 2010

IS-SIĠAR MALTIN

Alfred E. Baldacchino

Nistħajjel xi ħadd jistaqsi: “imma x’jagħmel siġra siġra Maltija u oħra mhux Maltija? Is-siġar mhux kollha siġar?”

Il-gżejjer Maltin kellhom għatja ta’ siġar adattati kemm għall-klima kif ukoll għall-ambjenti naturali tagħhom għall-eluf ta’ snin qabel mal-bniedem medd riġlejh fuq dawn il-gżejjer. Insibu siġar li kienu, u wħud minnhom għadhom jikbru sa llum il-ġurnata, f’ambjent niexef u fqir fil-ħamrija; oħrajn jikbru f’ambjent bi blat bi rqajja’ ta’ ħamrija, waqt li oħrajn jikbru matul il-widien u qrib ta’ nixxigħat minħabba li dawn iħobbu l-ilma. Dawn, li kif għidna, uħud minnhom għadhom jikbru fil-gżejjer Maltin, huma s-siġar Maltin, jew kif huma magħrufa teknikament, siġar indiġeni Maltin. Dan ma jfisserx li dawn is-siġar Maltin jikbru biss fil-gżejjer Maltin, imma huma popolazzjoni ta’ siġar li għal eluf ta’ snin ma kellhomx u lanqas illum ma għandhomx kuntatt fiżiku ma’ siġar oħra bħalhom li jikbru barra mill-gżejjer Maltin. Siġar oħra bħalhom jikbru l-aktar fil-pajjiżi madwar il-Mediterran, imma minħabba li l-gżejjer Maltin huma mdawrin bil-baħar, mhux possibli li s-siġar Maltin jiddakkru jew idakkru, b’mod naturali, is-siġar bħalhom li jikbru fil-pajjiżi tal-Mediterran għax il-firxa tal-baħar tal-madwar hija kbira wisq.

Matul il-medda tas-snin, uħud minn dawn is-siġar Maltin, saru rari ħafna, waqt li oħrajn inqerdu għal kollox.  Ilum insibu madwar 60 speċi ta’ siġar Maltin li għadhom jikbru, jħaddru, u jsebbħu pajjizna, għalkemm ’l biċċa l-kbira huma kemmxejn rari u jikbru f’postijiet imwarrba.

IR-RIĦAN – waħda mis-siġar Maltin, li għadha tħaddar u twarrad f’xi rqajja tal-gżejjer Maltin, tgħamel ħilitha biex tkompli issebbaħhom minkejja l-imġieba negattiva tagħna.  U minkejja li huwa tant ħafif biex titnissel, xorta għad hemm min jagħżel li jdaħħalha f’pajjiżna billi jixtriha jew iġibha minn pajjiżi oħra, fil-riżultati negattivi kollha li jista’ jkollha.

Kif u għaliex inqerdu xi siġar Maltin

Meta l-bniedem rifes fuq dawn il-gżejjer, dan mill-ewwel kellu impatt fuq l-ambjent naturali Malti, anki fuq is-siġar. Dan beda jaqta’ s-siġar għall-injam biex jibni għatja fuq rasu; biex ikebbes in-nar, kemm biex isajjar kif ukoll kontra l-kesħa, u anki biex bl-injam jagħmel manek għall-għodda.  Il-bniedem ukoll ġab miegħu xi annimali domestiċi, fosthom il-mogħoż.  Dawn xejn ma għenu fit-tnissil tas-siġar Maltin, għaliex kull nebbieta ta’ kull siġra kienu jqaxxruha mill-qiegħ biex jiekluha. Il-qerda tas-siġar ħadet xejra oħra meta l-bniedem beda jaħdem l-art biex ikabbar l-uċuh tar-raba’. U numru ta’ siġar Maltin, tbiċċru, tqaċċtu, u nqalgħu biex għamlu wisa’ għall-għelieqi.

Il-ħakma tal-gżejjer mill-barrani matul is-snin, l-aktar dawk Rumani u dawk Għarbin wkoll kompliet tneżża lil dawn il-gżejjer mill-għatja ta’ siġar Maltin.  Dan kien isir ukoll għall-għanijiet ta’ gwerer, u l-injam tagħhom saħansitra għen biex inbnew xi xwieni. Anki llum il-ġurnata għadna naraw l-imġieba negattiva u n-nuqqas ta’ apprezzament tal-bniedem lejn is-siġar.  Wieħed ma jieħux gost jgħid, imma n-nuqqas ta’ edukazzjoni dwar dan il-wirt, tkompli tgħin biex is-siġar Maltin ikomplu jonqsu bil-mod il-mod.  U kif ngħidu aħna, tieħu mingħajr ma trodd, is-swar tħott.

Illum naraw theddida oħra ġdida għas-siġar Maltin.  Din ġejja mill-importazzjoni, jew id-dħul fil-pajjiż ta’ siġar minn kull rokna tad-dinja: mill-Asja, mill-Amerika, mill-Awstralja, u mill-Afrika t’Isfel, mingħajr l-iċken ħsieb ta’ l-impatt negattiv li dawn jista’ jkollhom mhux biss fuq is-siġar Maltin imma anki fuq l-annimali u l-pjanti slavaġġ, jiġifieri fuq l-ekosistema Maltija.  Dan biex ma nsemmux ukoll l-impatt ekonomiku, dak storiku, dak tas-saħħa tal-bniedem, dak estetiku, dak agrikolu, u impatti oħra.  Sfortunatament, wieħed mill-għanijiet ewlenin għad-dħul ta’ dawn is-siġar barranin huwa biss għan ta’ qliegħ ta’ flus.

Hawn ukoll min jaħseb li biex tgħin lis-siġar u l-ekosistema tal-gżejjer Maltin huwa billi jinxtraw jew jinġiebu siġar bħal dawk Maltin, minn pajjiżi oħra, mingħajr ma jqis l-impatt negattiv li dawn jista’ jkollhom fuq is-siġar Maltin stess, bħal ma sfortunatament diġa rajna. Hawnhekk ma jistax ma jingħadx li dan huwa kollu riżultat tan-nuqqas ta’ apprezzament tas-sistem ekoloġika, nuqqas ta’ għarfien tal-obligazzjonijiet internazzjonali f’dan il-qasam, kollu frott tan-nuqqas ta’ rieda u n-nuqqas ta’ edukazzjoni.

aebaldacchino@gmail.com